THE WORMERS

FOUR STEPS TO CHOOSING THE RIGHT WORMER:

WHICH WORMS?

Know your foe.

Some wormers work better against different worms. 

We will tell you which ones are suitable

AM I MILKING THEM?

Milk Withdrawals

Every medicine has a withdrawal period, ranging from zero to 60 days. 

For goats follow the sheep guidance or 7 days - whichever is the longest

HOW WOULD I LIKE TO GIVE IT?

Use your best skills.

Some animals are easier to inject, some prefer an oral drench. You know your animals & skills the best

for example:

WHATS LICENSED FOR MY SPECIES?

Follow the Cascade.

Now we have a shortlist of drugs, we can follow the cascade: 

  1. A product liscenced for my species & my worms

  2. A product for my species

  3. A product for a similar species

  4. A product for any animal

  5. A product for a human

I've got Haemonchus

I can use:

  • ivermectin

  • moxidectin

  • eprinomectin

  • albendazole

YES I'm milking

I can use:​

  • moxidectin

  • eprinomectin

I'D LIKE A DRENCH

I can use:​

  • moxidectin

I'M TREATING SHEEP

I can use:​

  • Cydectin oral drench, liscenced for sheep with Haemonchus containing moxidectin with a 120 hour milk withdrawal period. Perfect!

YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES

Even if your animals are just pets, you must follow the regulations when using medications

  • Buying wormers: each product is given a category. For POM-V products: a vet must examine the animal first & then prescribe. For POM-VPS products: a vet or pharmacist (eg online suppliers) can assess your animals' information / suitability and prescribe without examining your animal. I can write a prescription for a POM-VPS after the WEC if needed - some online suppliers prefer this for goats & alpacas (£4.50 prescription fee)

  • Following the Datasheet: read the dosing carefully, if you change the dose rate you will need to use the default withdrawal periods. Read the info for women handling the drug especially if pregnant. Be aware of all the listed adverse effects so you are prepared. If your vet decants you a small amount, ask for a copy of the original product's datasheet for your records.

  • Milk & Meat Withdrawal Period: 'Day' is 24 hours from the time of administration. The product's period only applies if used at the dose rate & species listed. If used in a different species the default withdrawal periods apply: 7 days (for milk), 28 days (for meat) or the products listed period + 50%, which ever is longest. Eg, using a sheep product in a goat: if listed for 3 days in sheep = 7 days in a goat, if listed for 60 days in a sheep = 90 days in a goat (60+50%)

  • Record Keeping: record all batch numbers, tag or microchip number, date of admin, dose given, withdrawal periods adhered to. Label all bottles with the date you broach it. If you have staff, ensure everyone initials every entry they make to records.

THE WORMERS:

EPRINOMECTIN:

     YES              YES            YES 

NO DATA         NO             NO

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, lungworm, mites & lice

Brand names: Epromec pour-on for Cattle, Eprinex Multi pour-on for cattle, sheep & goats, Eprizero pour-on for Cattle, Bimeprine pour-on for Cattle, Neoprinil pour-on for cattle, Eprecis pour-on injection for cattle, 

Broad spectrum wormer - effective against the roundworms, nematodirus, Haemonchus, Lungworms, warbles, mange mites, sucking lice, biting lice 

Safe during pregnancy & lactation

Eprinex Multi requires prescription from your vet & your animals to have been recently examined. 

The ONLY wormer with no milk withdrawal - perfect for diary herds especially Eprinex Multi for goats

Toxic to some other species (esp Collie Dogs) - read instructions carefully. 

Licensed Species

Suitable Species

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat Withdrawal

Cattle (all), Sheep & Goats (Eprinex Multi)

Cattle, Sheep & Goats

Pour-on skin, or

Injection

ZERO for all products in Cows

ZERO for Eprinex Multi Sheep & Goats

Varies by species & product, 1-15 days

Albendazole

    YES              YES             YES

     YES              NO            NO 

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, lungworm, tapeworms & fluke-eggs

Brand names: Albex, Endospec

Broad spectrum against all worms, its is 'Ovicidal' against fluke eggs - this means it will not kill the adult flukes within the liver but will reduce pasture contamination of eggs 

Sheep & Goats & Alpaca: never use within 30 days of conception (either side of mating), best avoided throughout pregnancy.  

Not to be used in milking sheep & goats

Licensed Species

Suitable Species

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat Withdrawal

Cattle & Sheep

Cattle, Sheep, Goats & Alpaca

Oral

Cows: 60 hours

Not to be used in milking goats or sheep 

Cattle: 14 days

Sheep: 5 days

Goats: 28 days

Moxidectin

      YES            YES             YES

     YES              NO            YES 

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, lungworm

Brand names: moxodex, cydectin (pour-on for cattle, injection for cattle or sheep, or oral solution for sheep) , Equest for horses

Broad spectrum, easy to administer.

There is a pour-on available for Cattle (6 day milk withdrawal, 14 day meat withdrawal), the pour-ons can cause irritation to goat & alpaca skin. 

DAIRY GOATS: the sheep withdrawal for Cydectin Oral is just 120 hours, so the default off-species of 7 days withdrawal applies. Do not use the injection in dairy herds.

Cydectin TriclaMox oral solution for sheep: has added Triclabendazole for treatment of adult & larval stages of Fluke, this is not for use in milking animals and has a prolonged meat withdrawal

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat Withdrawal

Cattle, Sheep, horses

Moxidectin

Oral, Injection, pour-on

Oral: sheep 120 hours, Goats 7 days

Inj: do not use

Oral: sheep 14 days, Goats 28 days

Inj: sheep & goats 70 days

Levamisole

      YES            YES             NO

     NO              NO            NO

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, lungworm

Brand names: Levacide (oral drench or injection), Levacur (oral)

Broad spectrum

DAIRY ANIMALS: not to be used

Goats: works very well, but has a low safety margin - slightly too much will trigger neurological signs so only use if you have accurate platform weighing scales

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat Withdrawal

Cattle, Sheep

Levamisole

Oral, Injection,

Do not use

Varies by product, 14 - 21 days

Fenbendazole 10%

    YES               YES            YES

     YES              YES            YES 

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, tapeworms (resistance reported), particularly useful for pinworms, tapeworms and Nematodirus

Brand names: Panacur, Zerofen, generic fenbendazole, pigfen

Often known as 'White Wormer'.

The different brands have different withdrawals - read instructions carefully, do not use Zerofen in dairy herds.

Pigfen & 'Panacur Aquasol' are suspensions for use in treating Ascaris suum, added to drinking water for Pigs, 4 days meat withdrawal period

Panacur make a continuous release intraruminal bolus device for cattle, not for use in dairy cows and 200 day meat withdrawal period

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk withdrawal

Meat Withdrawal

Cattle, Sheep, Pigs & Horses

Fenbendazole

Oral, intraruminal bolus, water additive

ZEROFEN: do not use

varies widely - read instructions carefully.

Ivermectin

     YES               YES           YES

     YES              YES            YES 

Treats: roundworms, haemonchus, lungworm, mites & ticks

Brand names: oramec, noromec (oral), panomec, ivomec, noromectin, bimectin (inj), panomec, ivomec (pour-ons)

Pour-ons can cause severe skin irritation in goats.

*** DAIRY ANIMALS ***: follow datasheets carefully- do not use in last 60 days of gestation or during lactation. 

Ecomectin is a medicated pre-mix for feeding to pigs

There are many oral pastes available for horses, with or without an added tapewormer

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat withdrawal

Cattle, Sheep, Pigs & horses

Ivermectin

Oral, injection, pour-on, in feed mixture

60 days ***

28 days

HERBAL 

    YES               YES             YES

     YES              YES            YES 

Common Ingredients: Wheat Meal, Wheatfeed Meal, Micronised Beet Pulp, Limestone Flour, Cinnamon, Garlic, Common Thyme, Peppermint, Fennel, Cleavers, Nettle, Sunflower Oil, Slippery Elm, Quassia, Cayenne, Seaweed Meal, Dicalcium Phosphate.

  • VermX has a product for sheep&goats, cattle, pigs and horses

  • Tubby by CM Animal Health produces many vitamin, mineral & herbal products

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat withdrawal

No liscence required

NONE

granules

ZERO

ZERO

Copper Oxide

Wire Particles

     YES              YES            YES

     NO              NO             NO 

Ingredients: COWP - copper oxide needles 

Brands: Copasure (USA - can import through ebay)

  • There is lots of data & research going into the efficacy of COWPs. A bolus of 2g per kid or doe can significantly reduce haemonchus burdens. 

  • Suggested interval between doses is 6 months.

  • No effect against lungworm or fluke. The effect comes from the needles as much as the copper, so a pure copper supplement does not work

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat withdrawal

No liscence required

NONE

capsule

ZERO

ZERO

Diatomaceous

Earth

     YES              YES            YES

     YES              YES            YES 

Ingredients: microscopic fossilized diatoms, ground into a powder 

Brands: generic, multi-mite

  • DE works by physically traumatizing the external walls of parasites. Very effective against mites, lice and poultry intestinal worms - however its efficacy in the ruminant is unproven. Two clinical trials did not find any beneficial effect in cattle.

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat withdrawal

None required

NONE

powder added to food

ZERO

ZERO

High Tannin & Proanthrocyanidins

(PAC) Forage

     YES            YES           YES

     YES              YES            YES 

Examples: Sericea lespedeza (legume added to grazing or dried as hay), the leaves, bark & buds of willow, oak & eucalyptus trees, and cranberry vines (PACs)

  • Tannins and the PACs have been clinically proven to reduce gastrointestinal parasites (Haemonchus & roundworms - no effect against lungworm & liver flukes). The target is to get 50% of the animal's diet to be the high tannin foods for atleast a week.

Licensed Species

Drug

Method

Milk Withdrawal

Meat withdrawal

NONE

NONE

Forage

ZERO

ZERO

Small Holder's Worm Advice Service

Tomtebo, Nickley Wood Road, Ashford, Kent TN26 1LZ

email: orlestone.farm@outlook.com