ALPACAS &parasites

Alpacas & Llamas are sensitive to all of the parasites that infect ruminants. Liver fluke is particularly vicious in alpacas and a common cause of sudden death in endemic areas.

No wormers are licensed for use in the camelids, however we have a range of treatment options with well researched dose rates

Recommended testing frequency: 3-4 times per year

Optimum Schedule: Jan, May, Aug-Sept

Plus Mum & Cria 3-6 weeks after birth

Llama / Alpaca WEC: £14.50

For up to 5 named samples, This can be a mix&match accross the farm

Including Fluke, Lungworm and coccidia (eg EMAC)

roundworms
roundworms

diarrhoea

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roundworm
roundworm

odema under jaw

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roundworm
roundworm

poor body condition, poor coat

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roundworms
roundworms

diarrhoea

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ROUNDWORMS

aka the Nematodes:

Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum

SYMPTOMS

Diarrhoea

Poor coat quality

Poor body condition

Slow growth rate

Midline or jaw oedema

Death

Haemonchus
Haemonchus

Pale membranes due to anaemia

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Haemonchus
Haemonchus

Eyelid membranes will go pale or white with anaemia

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Haemonchus
Haemonchus

severe weight loss

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Haemonchus
Haemonchus

Pale membranes due to anaemia

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haemonchus

aka Barbers Pole Worm:

Haemonchus contortus

SYMPTOMS

Anaemia

Weight Loss

Lethargy

Sudden death

Normal Poos

Tapeworm
Tapeworm

Happy, healthy flock

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Tapeworm
Tapeworm

Segments passed in poo

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Tapeworm
Tapeworm

Happy, healthy flock

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tapeworm

aka the Cestodes:

Monezia, Thysanosoma

SYMPTOMS

Look horrible when wriggling out - but surprisingly harmless!

Heavy burdens in Cria cause:

Anorexia

Reduced gut motility

Gut rupture & peritonitis

Coccidiosis
Coccidiosis

Mainly affects Cria

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Coccidiosis
Coccidiosis

Pasty diarrhoea with pot-belly

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Coccidiosis
Coccidiosis

Blood or mucus in faeces

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Coccidiosis
Coccidiosis

Mainly affects Cria

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coccidia 

aka Coccidiosis:

Eimeria

SYMPTOMS

Mainly affects cria:

Diarrhoea (often pasty)

Blood & mucus in faeces

Skinny & weak

Abdominal Pain

Permanent gut damage

Healthy adults will often have coccidia in their faeces - interpret positive samples with care before using a coccidiostat

 
Liver Fluke
Liver Fluke

Seasonal changes

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Liver Fluke
Liver Fluke

only transmitted by mud-snails

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liver fluke
liver fluke

liver fluke

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Liver Fluke
Liver Fluke

Seasonal changes

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LIVER FLUKE

aka Fasciola:

Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna

SYMPTOMS

Anorexia & depression

Weakness & dry faeces

Increased respiratory rate

Ascites (belly fluid)

Colic

Sudden death

Lungworm
Lungworm

cough

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lungworm microscopy
lungworm microscopy

not detected on routine worm egg count -needs a Baermans flotation

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Lungworm
Lungworm

runny nose

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Lungworm
Lungworm

cough

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LUNGWORMS

Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens

SYMPTOMS

Cough

Nasal discharge

Increased respiratory rate

Poor condition

Weight loss

Cysticercus
Cysticercus

cysts form around the organs

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Cysticercus
Cysticercus

taenia hydatigena eggs are excreted in dog faeces

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Cysticercus
Cysticercus

transmitted through dog faeces

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Cysticercus
Cysticercus

cysts form around the organs

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cYSTICERCOSIS 

Cysticercus tenuicollis - the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Taenia hydatigena

SYMPTOMS

Mainly asymptomatic

large numbers cause liver failure:

depression

weakness

Crypto
Crypto

yellow pasty diarrhoea in very young lambs

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Crypto
Crypto

crypto under microscope

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Crypto
Crypto

crypto lifecycle

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Crypto
Crypto

yellow pasty diarrhoea in very young lambs

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CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

aka Crypto:

Cryptosporidium parvum

SYMPTOMS

5-10 day old Cria

active, alert & feeding well

very liquid diarrhoea

yellow diarrhoea

 

controltips

Good parasite control is about more than using a drug every 3 months,

you can reduce risk & use of anthelminthic drugs:

  • do not graze with sheep or goats (they share worms)

  • do graze with horses (they 'hoover-up' ruminant worms)

  • Avoid previously flooded grazing

  • Avoid mud-snail areas, eg by streams

  • Encourage foraging behaviour

  • Feed hay in a rack, never the floor

  • Rotational graze

  • Increase dietary protein in cria

  • Ensure new animals have a clear faeces check

  • Be fastidious with food & water bowl cleanliness

Focus On: EMAC Coccidia

 

The dreaded coccidia!

Why is it such bad news?

This tiny parasite (Eimeria macusaniensis "E-Mac") infects the gut lining of young Cria. The initial inflammation causes severe diarrhoea.

This inflammation then permanently scars, the animal will always be a 'Poor-Doer'.

The biggest problem - this scarring starts before shedding coccidia in faeces, so a positive test in a sick Cria is already too late.

To add to this complex bug's trouble - healthy adult Alpaca will have a normal population of coccidia living in their bowels - giving a positive test result when nothing is wrong.

As if that all wasn't bad enough - the treatment is difficult. No drug kills all the parasites. Decocquinate, Lasalosid and Monensin and Diclazuril will all help to reduce parasitic load, and should be used to treat in-contact crias.

Diclazuril (Vecoxan) can be given to all crias at 4-6 weeks of age on farms known to have a coccidia problem.

To add insult to injury - the bug is extremely difficult to kill in the environment. Sunlight & Ammonia are the only two things to kill this bug reliably.

The key to Coccidia Sucess? Prevention is Better than Cure.

Symptoms

  • Crias 1-6 months old

  • Brown, watery diarrhoea

  • Blood & mucus in faeces

  • Poor appetite

  • Dehydration

  • Weakness

  • Rough coat

  • Weight loss

  • Fading away & death 

diarrhoea.jpg

Treatment

Affected Crias:

  • Vecoxan 0.25mls / Kg by mouth, repeated after 3 weeks​

  • Aggressive fluid therapy - orally with electrolyte solutions and/or subcutaneous saline

  • Antibiotics for secondary infection

  • Hand feeding

In contact crias:​

  • Vecoxan 0.25mls / Kg by mouth, repeated after 3 weeks​

vecoxan.jpg

Cleaning

  • Clear away all faeces & bedding

  • Try to encourage as much natural sunlight as possible - coccidi are killed by UV light

  • Get kids & lambs outside as soon as possible

  • Reduce stocking density

  • Clean everything with an ammonia based cleaner, eg superkill max.

  • Change water buckets daily

superkill max.jpg

Prevention

  • Control build up of manure or waste

  • Ensure good natural daylight

  • Maintain low stocking densities indoors

  • Keep water sources totally clear of faecal contamination

  • Clean indoor housing with ammonia before expecting newborns

Known coccidia environments:

Treat all cria with vecoxan (or similar coccidia treatment) at 4 weeks old, and at times of stress - weaning, moving

toltranil.jpg