ALPACAS &parasites

Alpacas are sensitive to all of the parasites that infect ruminants. Liver fluke is particularly vicious in alpacas and a common cause of sudden death in endemic areas.

No wormers are licensed for use in the camelids, however we have a range of treatment options with well researched dose rates

Recommended testing frequency: 4 times per year

Highest risk periods: after flooding, 3-4 month old cria

Llama / Alpaca WEC: £12.50

For up to 5 named samples, This can be a mix&match accross the farm

Including Fluke, Lungworm and coccidia

ROUNDWORMS

aka the Nematodes:

Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum

SYMPTOMS

Diarrhoea

Poor coat quality

Poor body condition

Slow growth rate

Midline or jaw oedema

Death

haemonchus

aka Barbers Pole Worm:

Haemonchus contortus

SYMPTOMS

Anaemia

Weight Loss

Lethargy

Sudden death

Normal Poos

tapeworm

aka the Cestodes:

Monezia, Thysanosoma

SYMPTOMS

Look horrible when wriggling out - but surprisingly harmless!

Heavy burdens in Cria cause:

Anorexia

Reduced gut motility

Gut rupture & peritonitis

coccidia 

aka Coccidiosis:

Eimeria

SYMPTOMS

Mainly affects cria:

Diarrhoea (often pasty)

Blood & mucus in faeces

Skinny & weak

Abdominal Pain

Permanent gut damage

Healthy adults will often have coccidia in their faeces - interpret positive samples with care before using a coccidiostat

 

LIVER FLUKE

aka Fasciola:

Fasciola hepatica, Fascioloides magna

SYMPTOMS

Anorexia & depression

Weakness & dry faeces

Increased respiratory rate

Ascites (belly fluid)

Colic

Sudden death

LUNGWORMS

Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens

SYMPTOMS

Cough

Nasal discharge

Increased respiratory rate

Poor condition

Weight loss

cYSTICERCOSIS 

Cysticercus tenuicollis - the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Taenia hydatigena

SYMPTOMS

Mainly asymptomatic

large numbers cause liver failure:

depression

weakness

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

aka Crypto:

Cryptosporidium parvum

SYMPTOMS

5-10 day old Cria

active, alert & feeding well

very liquid diarrhoea

yellow diarrhoea

 

controltips

Good parasite control is about more than using a drug every 3 months,

you can reduce risk & use of anthelminthic drugs:

  • do not graze with sheep or goats (they share worms)

  • do graze with horses (they 'hoover-up' ruminant worms)

  • Avoid previously flooded grazing

  • Avoid mud-snail areas, eg by streams

  • Encourage foraging behaviour

  • Feed hay in a rack, never the floor

  • Rotational graze

  • Increase dietary protein in cria

  • Ensure new animals have a clear faeces check

  • Be fastidious with food & water bowl cleanliness

Focus On: EMAC Coccidia

 

The dreaded coccidia!

Why is it such bad news?

This tiny parasite (Eimeria macusaniensis "E-Mac") infects the gut lining of young Cria. The initial inflammation causes severe diarrhoea.

This inflammation then permanently scars, the animal will always be a 'Poor-Doer'.

The biggest problem - this scarring starts before shedding coccidia in faeces, so a positive test in a sick Cria is already too late.

To add to this complex bug's trouble - healthy adult Alpaca will have a normal population of coccidia living in their bowels - giving a positive test result when nothing is wrong.

As if that all wasn't bad enough - the treatment is difficult. No drug kills all the parasites. Decocquinate, Lasalosid and Monensin and Diclazuril will all help to reduce parasitic load, and should be used to treat in-contact crias.

Diclazuril (Vecoxan) can be given to all crias at 4-6 weeks of age on farms known to have a coccidia problem.

To add insult to injury - the bug is extremely difficult to kill in the environment. Sunlight & Ammonia are the only two things to kill this bug reliably.

The key to Coccidia Sucess? Prevention is Better than Cure.

Symptoms

  • Crias 1-6 months old

  • Brown, watery diarrhoea

  • Blood & mucus in faeces

  • Poor appetite

  • Dehydration

  • Weakness

  • Rough coat

  • Weight loss

  • Fading away & death 

Treatment

Affected Crias:

  • Vecoxan 0.25mls / Kg by mouth, repeated after 3 weeks​

  • Aggressive fluid therapy - orally with electrolyte solutions and/or subcutaneous saline

  • Antibiotics for secondary infection

  • Hand feeding

In contact crias:​

  • Vecoxan 0.25mls / Kg by mouth, repeated after 3 weeks​

Cleaning

  • Clear away all faeces & bedding

  • Try to encourage as much natural sunlight as possible - coccidi are killed by UV light

  • Get kids & lambs outside as soon as possible

  • Reduce stocking density

  • Clean everything with an ammonia based cleaner, eg superkill max.

  • Change water buckets daily

Prevention

  • Control build up of manure or waste

  • Ensure good natural daylight

  • Maintain low stocking densities indoors

  • Keep water sources totally clear of faecal contamination

  • Clean indoor housing with ammonia before expecting newborns

Known coccidia environments:

Treat all cria with vecoxan (or similar coccidia treatment) at 4 weeks old, and at times of stress - weaning, moving

Small Holder's Worm Advice Service

Tomtebo, Nickley Wood Road, Ashford, Kent TN26 1LZ

email: orlestone.farm@outlook.com

Haemonchus

Pale membranes due to anaemia